Ice (Crystal methamphetamine) and women

Clearinghouse Connector – March 2015

Links to online resources available from the Women’s Health Victoria Clearinghouse collection.

To access these resources follow the title hyperlink. The display includes a link to the external website where the full text is available.

Need information on a different topic? Check out our Clearinghouse Connector archive.

Crystal methamphetamine – known colloquially as ice or crystal meth – is the most potent of all amphetamine class drugs; producing more intense highs, more intense comedowns, greater potential for dependence (addiction) as well as chronic physical and mental health problems.

A growing evidence base shows that the supply and use of crystal methamphetamine is influenced by gendered norms and that the harms associated with use of this drug differ for women and men.

The 2014 Victorian Government inquiry into the supply and use of methamphetamines, particularly ice, recognises that any constructive response to methamphetamine use must be gender specific.


Fact sheet : Ice (crystal methamphetamine) Australian Drug Foundation, 2013

Impacts of methamphetamine in Victoria : a community assessment Pennington Institute, 2014


Methamphetamine and other stimulants In: The Victorian drug statistics handbook: patterns of drug use and related harm in Victoria for the period July 2010 to June 2011 Victoria. Department of Health, 2012. Chapter 9

Illicit use of drugs In: National Drug Strategy household survey 2013 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2014. Chapter 5

Trends in drug use and related harms in Australia, 2001 to 2013 (Chapter 7) University of New South Wales. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, 2013. Chapter 7

Reproductive health

Methamphetamine abuse in women of reproductive age American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion, 2011

Patterns of methamphetamine use during pregnancy: results from the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2010 – Individual registration required to access fulltext

Co-morbidity of substance use disorder and psychopathology in women who use methamphetamine during pregnancy in the US and New Zealand Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2013

Pregnancy and fetal loss reported by methamphetamine-using women Substance Abuse, 2014

Sexual health

Navigating the risk environment : structural vulnerability, sex, and reciprocity among women who use methamphetamine International Journal of Drug Policy, 2014

Sexual pleasure and sexual risk among women who use methamphetamine: a mixed methods study International Journal of Drug Policy, 2012

Differences in sexual risk behaviors among male and female HIV-seronegative heterosexual methamphetamine users American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2010

Correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV negative heterosexual methamphetamine users Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 2011

Crystal methamphetamine use among female street-based sex workers: Moving beyond individual-focused interventions Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2011

Drug users involved in prostitution: impact on health King’s College London. National Addiction Centre, 2015

Pathways to HIV risk and vulnerability among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered methamphetamine users : a multi-cohort gender-based analysis BMC Public Health, 2011

Mental health

Gender differences in psychiatric symptoms among methamphetamine dependent residents in sober living houses Addictive Disorders and Their Treatment, 2012

Relationship between gender and psychotic symptoms in cocaine-dependent and methamphetamine-dependent participants Gender Medicine, 2010

Methamphetamine-using parents : the relationship between parental role strain and depressive symptoms Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2011

What’s faith got to do with it? : religiosity among women who use methamphetamine Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 2012

Social context

“When you got friends in low places, you stay low” : social networks and access to resources for female methamphetamine users in low-income suburban communities Journal of Drug Issues. 2014

A qualitative exploration of gender in the context of methamphetamine use on the U.S.-Mexico border Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology. 2010


Mad men, meth moms, moral panic: gendering meth crimes in the Midwest Critical Criminology, 2010

“They mess with me, I mess with them”: Understanding physical aggression in rural girls and boys from methamphetamine-involved families Children and Youth Services Review, 2010

Trauma-informed treatment decreases posttraumatic stress disorder among women offenders Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 2014

Health promotion approaches

Methamphetamine Drug Info Clearing House, 2008

Down, but not out: an ethnographic study of women who struggled with and overcame methamphetamine addiction [Dissertation] University of South Florida, 2010

A gender-specific approach to improving substance abuse treatment for women Healthy Places. Debunking Addication Blog, 2011

Methamphetamine treatment: building on successful strategies to enhance outcomes UnitingCare Re-Gen, 2014

Intensive motivational Interviewing for women with concurrent alcohol problems and methamphetamine dependence Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 2014


Inquiry into the supply and use of methamphetamines, particularly ice, in Victoria Victoria. Parliament. Law Reform, Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee, 2014

Developing drug policy: gender matters Global Drug Policy Observatory, 2014

Related websites

Drug Info Ice facts

How our Clearinghouse can help you

Women’s Health Victoria’s Clearinghouse has a wealth of information on gender in health in various forms. Our experienced health and information professionals can assist you to access this information.

Feedback and subscription

We value your feedback. Please tell us what you think of this resource. Click here to take a brief online survey

Please Contact Us with any feedback including suggestions for future Clearinghouse Connector topics.

Has a colleague forwarded this e-bulletin to you?
For your own subscription, complete an online Subscribe Request.

GPO Box 1160 Melbourne, Victoria 3001 - Phone: +61 3 9664 9300
Email: - Website:

Women's Health Victoria acknowledges the support of the Victorian Government

For problems accessing this site email