Women’s Health Data: Employment

Employment, or labour force participation, is a measure of the number of people aged 15 years and over who are engaged in work activities. Rates of employment, superannuation and wage gaps influence women’s socioeconomic wellbeing and health. Economic conditions are a powerful determinant of women’s health and wellbeing throughout their lives.

Need data on a different topic? Check out our Women's Health Data archive.

Key statistics

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

Women from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds

Women with disabilities

Same-sex attracted women


  1. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Average weekly earnings, Australia, May 2013. Cat no. 6302.0. Canberra: ABS; 2013 [cited 3 September 2013]. Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/6302.0Main%20Features4May%202013?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=6302.0&issue=May%202013&num=&view=.
  2. COAG Reform Council. Tracking equity: Comparing outcomes for women and girls across Australia Report to the Council of Australian Governments21 October 2013. [cited 20 November 2013] Available from: http://www.coagreformcouncil.gov.au/reports/gender-equity/tracking-equity-comparing-outcomes-women-and-girls-across-australia.
  3. Cassells R, Miranti R, Nepal B & Tanton R. She works hard for the money, Income and Wealth Report, Issue 22, p. 34. Canberra: AMP with National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling: 2009 [cited 9 December 2013] Available from: http://www.natsem.canberra.edu.au/publications/?publication=ampnatsem-income-and-wealth-report-issue-22-she-works-hard-for-the-money.
  4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retirement and retirement intentions, Australia, July 2010 to June 2011. Cat no. 6238.0. Canberra: ABS; 2011 [cited 3 September 2013] Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/6238.0Main%20Features3July%202010%20to%20June%202011?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=6238.0&issue=July%202010%20to%20June%202011&num=&view=.
  5. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Labour Force Characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, Estimates from the Labour Force Survey, 2011.Cat. no. 6287.0. Canberra: ABS; 2012 [cited 9 December 2013]. Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Products/6287.0~2011~Chapter~Participation.
  6. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women’s Alliance. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and superannuation. Melbourne: First Nations Foundation;2013[cited 9 December 2013] Available from: http://www.fnf.org.au/financial-inclusion.html.
  7. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian social trends 2006 –Labour force participation of migrants. Cat. no. 4102.0; 2006 [cited 23 December 2010]. Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4102.02006?OpenDocument.
  8. Federation of Ethnic Communities’ Councils of Australia. Women’s Policy Statement2012: Supporting Australian Women from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Backgrounds.Deakin:2012 [cited 9 December 2013] Available from: http://www.fecca.org.au/images/stories/pdfs/fecca%20womens%20policy%202012.pdf.
  9. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Measures of Australia’s progress, 2010. Cat. No. 1370.0. Canberra: ABS; 2011 [cited 3 September 2013] Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/lookup/by%20subject/1370.0~2010~Chapter~Map%20downloads%20(8).
  10. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Barriers and Incentives to Labour Force Participation, Australia, July 2012 to June 2013. Cat. no. 6239.0. Canberra: ABS; 2013 [cited 9 December 2013] Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/6239.0Main%20Features3July%202012%20to%20June%202013?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=6239.0&issue=July%202012%20to%20June%202013&num=&view=.
  11. McNair, R. Lesbian health inequalities: a cultural minority issue for health professionals. MJA: The Medical Journal of Australia. 178 (12): 643-645. Also available online: EMJA; 2003 [cited 4 December 2013] Available from: http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/178_12_160603/mcn10852_fm.html.

Published: February 2014

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